Monday, March 19, 2007

Ethanol as Fuel Substitute for Electricity Generation by Engr Elizabeth R. Rivera, Jonathan Lagman, Regino Padilla, Paul Sotalbo and Rochelle Erfe

When Henry Ford, an automotive inventor, told a US newspaper report last 1925, that ethyl alcohol was the "Fuel of the Future, " he was expressing an opinion that was widely and equally shared in the automotive industry. He said, "there is fuel in every bit of vegetable matter like corn, sugarcane and apples, that can be fermented. There’s enough alcohol in one year’s yield of an acre of potatoes to drive the machinery necessary to cultivate the fields for hundred years." (Kovarick, 1998).Also, in 1925, the American farms were encountering an economic crisis that later on intensify with depression to rural people that resulted to urbanization.
Most automobiles employ the 4-stroke operation of the engine cycle. A major engineering concern is to control the burning of the gasoline-air mixture inside each cylinder to obtain a smooth expansion of the gas mixture. If the mixture burns too rapidly, the piston receives a hard jerk rather than a smooth, strong push. This action produces a "knocking" or "pinging sound," as well as a decrease in the efficiency in the conversion of combustion energy to mechanical energy. Gasoline is usually rated according to the octane number. (a measure of their tendency to cause knocking). The higher the octane number of a hydrocarbon, the better is its performance in the internal combustion engine. The octane rating of hydrocarbons can be improved by the addition of small quantities of substance called anti-knocking agent. Among the most widely used anti-knocking agents are organic compounds of lead like tetra ethyl lead. However, lead is a highly toxic metal and the constant discharge of automobile exhausts has become a serious environmental problem. Federal regulations of U.S. require that all automobiles made after 1974 use "unleaded" gasoline. To minimize knocking and increase the oxygen content of gasoline, they added the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Unfortunately, in the late 1990, MTBE, which is a cancerous substance, was found in drinking water. This is due to leaking gasoline storage tanks. With this, to begin to phase out the use of MTBE and no substitute has been found. Fuel ethanol or anhydrous alcohol is produced by dehydration of rectified spirit or extra neutral alcohol. Blending ethanol with petroleum for a motor vehicle is called fuel ethanol. ( C2H5OH ) has, apart from carbon and hydrogen, oxygen in it. This oxygen acts as oxygenating agent during combustion in the internal combustion engine of petroleum vehicles. This prevent the formation of a poisonous carbon monoxide (CO) gas and minimize the knocking of the engine because the oxygen in the ethanol helps to control the burning of gasoline-air mixture in the engine, thus resulting to smooth expansion of the gas mixture. This will also minimize the amount of unburned fuel in the gas exhaust. Fuel ethanol technology offers an attractive combination of highly efficient fuel utilization and environmentally-friendly operations. The fuel ethanol systems could be an accessible and attractive alternative to conventional electricity generation. The intensified research and development in the field of fuel ethanol technology particularly in recent times, are the basis for the present status report, which inquires into the technical and economic aspects of how fuel ethanol systems presently available can be used in stationary application. An ethanol fuel system can convert the chemical energy of fuel directly into electricity. Ethanol fuel produce electricity by an electrochemical process.
It increases combustion efficiency since alcohol such as ethanol burn more completely,
It reduces the emission of toxic air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned fuel to the environment. Mixing alcohol with gasoline tends to increase the octane rating and increases the efficiency of automotive engine. It advances the technology through the equipment used in ethanol plant and in the modification of automobile engine. Due to the differences in the nature of ethanol and gasoline, under certain conditions, alcohol such as ethanol may separate from the gasoline-ethanol fuel mixture, thus making the combustion of fuel ethanol ineffective. It increase the country’s energy security, resulting to a more stable economy It rises job creation especially in rural community It means more business opportunity In the long run, it generates more income for local government in terms of taxes and through the trading of its by-products and extract such as animal feeds. Since we have rich natural resources, so we have the capacity to produce abundantly the raw material of ethanol production. With this we have the high potential in the world market. We have the world as our market. At the occurrence of the higher ethanol production, the Philippines might consider the exportation of ethanol, which may alleviate our economy. The reduction of petroleum imports lowers the government income generation through taxes in petroleum usage. The improper planning and implementation of using fuel ethanol may resort to the importation of ethanol and its cognate products such as sugar from other countries, which will defeat government effort to achieve energy independence. Automotive utilization of fuel ethanol is considered to be a great project. It should be done in a large basis and based on the availability of a vehicle for the experimentation of different ratio of ethanol and gasoline combination.

Seismic mapping of the city of manila based on the uniform building code-2005 by Engr. Gerardo H. Garcia

It is alarming to note that from August to September 1999 alone, four (4) major earthquakes hit various countries – Mexico, Taiwan, Los Angeles, and Turkey with magnitude 7.4, 7.6, 7.0, and 7.8 respectively. Economic and human losses resulting from these earthquakes highlight the need for evaluating potentially active crustal faults.
Manila City for which encompasses a land area of 38.3 square kilometers, which is populated by nearly 1.7 million persons at a density of 44,387 persons per sq. km. And has 133,575 buildings which represent the highest building density of 44,387 persons per sq. km. And has 133,575 buildings which represent the highest building density in metro Manila, is comparably subject to the consequences as a seismic event. Available records from the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHILVOCS) indicate that the City of Manila has been affected by at least 28 major earthquakes having intensities ranging from Intensity VII to IX. Knowing that an earthquake is a re-occurring event and those coming from the MVFS will most likely generate the strongest levels of ground shaking in the City of Manila.With these developments and the series of earthquakes and the series of earthquake related events experienced here and abroad it is logical to review our own code and consider any new provisions or changes for possible implementation locally. In the same way, seismic map model is necessary with proper consideration of the geological and seismic related area data to ensure that geological situation is completely understood. The study uses the input-process approach with feedback serving as a major conduit for upgrading of the code . The procedure consists of two major activities-first is the evaluation of the specific section of the UBC-2005 and NSCP-2001 second is the creation of seismic model of Manila as tool in the base shear computation incorporating the near source concept. As such, seismic map model through the aid of AUTOCAD and AUTOLISP programming language will be created incorporating all the necessary data and base shear computations which serves as an initial tool necessary for initial site investigation necessary to the seismic design analysis. As an initial step to create the map mode, the topographic map of the City of manila will be secured from the City Engineering Office while the map of the Marikina Valley fault System will be acquired from PHILVOLCS, then overlaid and scale approximately using AUTOCAD program. After establishing the map and the Marikina Valley fault l;line, sets of database files will be created serving attributes necessary for the formulation of the required information expected on the map model. The AUTOLISP programming will be used to compute the base shear. In the light of series of earthquakes happening here and abroad, the government as well as those concerned groups should take serious consideration the danger that may pose by the hazard of seismic related events. As such, are local code should be responsive enough to the design criteria comparable abroad and can sustain the worst possible grounds motion that may occur. Given the above scenario coupled with emergent development needs and trends in seismic related cases, there is the urgency to assess for possible upgrading the local code and develop information technology tool to ensure geological and seismic related situation are completely understood to the extend possible

Organic Material as moisture absorbing ELEMENT for Paint Coating on Concrete Wall by Prof. Gerard V. Paguibitan

Since paint life is dependent primarily upon surface preparation, this aspect of the cleaning and painting program should receive very thorough consideration. The primary requirement of any surface preparation method is to assure that the prepared surface is thoroughly cleaned of any material that would lead to premature failure of paint. However, it must be kept in mind that all paints will fail eventually. Most paint systems failed prematurely because of cohesion or disruption in the film by rusting of the steel. The latter failures may be minimized by careful surface preparation. The surface preparation should remove sufficient deleterious matter so that the type of priming paint used can wet the surface enough to develop adequate adhesion and at the same time eliminate contaminants that cause corrosion between metal and the paint.The two most general classifications are ‘flat’ and ‘non-flat’, and are based only on the gloss level of the coating. Coatings measuring gloss level less than five on a 60-degree gloss meter fall into the flat category and those over five and 15 respectively are considered non-flat. Coatings being specified for use outside the general purposes represented on the product literature. The metallic pigmented category comprises products containing elemental metallic pigments for either aesthetic reason. Water proofing and sealers constitute products intended to prevent water infiltration by forming a film over concrete or masonry. The implementation of this research will undergo different stages like 1.)Planning 2.) Collection of Organic Specimen and selection of appropriate concrete wall test area 3.) Conducting Organic Test on concrete walls 4.) Development of installation methodology. The first two methods if not included in the process for they are standards that should be followed by each researcher, thus all the necessary precaution should be applied while performing the said experimentation. It is also understood that process that will be use in the organic research will under go various test and method configuration.

Evaluation the various paint failures.
The application of the organic material must adopt the all types of weather condition. Therefore proper evaluation of the area and paint failures should be properly identified in order to locate the vital point where the organic compound will eventually be place.

Conduction of Test for the organic material
The selected wall will be place on an observatory basis meaning all necessary data regarding the wall specification and location with the other vital information about the concrete will be recorded, an adhesive that is most appropriate for the wall will be applied to the chosen area, then the organic material which is currently in a block shape will be grind and will be applied on the wall both external and internal area of the wall. When organic material is fully applied on the wall the paint coating will then be lastly applied. Then observation time will be set to know the effectively of the material towards the pain coating.

Development of Application Method
Upon the various test analysis and the application for the actual test site, according to the various structural painters both industrial and local the common encountered problem is how to maximize the adhesion of paint coating and multiple coating would eventually result to flatting, in this research the method is applying only a single coat and with the organic compound in use, there is also part of the method that will be common to all the user of the coating application where in there should be a proper application of the surface preparation.

The issue of water penetration control in building construction is as old as the trade itself, occurring whenever three conditions exist: 1. Water is present on the outer face of the wall. 2. There is an opening through which water can pass. 3. A force to drive the water through the opening. Thus to prevent moisture penetration into the wall assembly, at least one of these factors must be controlled. Unfortunately, the first condition is unavoidable.
While there are design features such as the use of overhangs or eyebrows over windows than can divert most water away from critical areas, the exterior walls will generally be exposed to rain. The second condition can occur in various reasons, including damage, poor maintenance, or improper material design and/ or installation.
A little more than a decade ago, pressure-equalization technology was successfully incorporated into an EIFS Design. But now with the current problem on how to dispose organic compound, a new innovation on organic compound evolution is being introduce as a moisture absorbing compound to prolong the life span of the concrete walls especially on tropical areas.
From a design standpoint, the first step is to divide the building face into compartments by establishing areas of approximate equal wind pressures. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures provides procedures and guidelines for determining wind pressure on facades of various building types. For buildings with unusual exposures or unique design features, wind tunnel tests can also be performed.


This study focuses on the study of the reliability and efficiency of coconut husks as heat insulator used in structural designs such as theaters, gymnasiums, stadiums, offices, residential, buildings, warehouses, and hangars.Being situated in the tropical region, the Philippines have two climates in the whole year wet and dry seasons. During the dry seasons which normally last for six months, from December to May, extreme heat (28-34) degree Celsius) covers the whole country specially the congested urban areas. People take their rest, have fun work in buildings. But for this building to be conducive to such activities, one requirement is the habitability which means availability of cooling systems, like air-conditioning units and/or electric fans. But not all have the luxury of getting this extravagant equipment. In order not to jeopardize revenue outputs for commercial businesses, people may resort to some cheaper options to sustain their operations. In the advent of modern technologies these days, few people know about the usefulness of coconut husk. . But aside from the notion of it as simply used coconut blanket for erosion, there are many more dimensions to it. From flexible packaging to building materials to electrical capacitors, the properties of coconut husk form provides a lot of benefits to mankind. It can be used as heat absorber. It can hold heat to some extent and is used by some building for this purpose. Through posh condominium and commercial buildings use air- conditioning system as their means of cooling their surroundings, the availability and employment of coconut husk as a material for heat insulation in the building constructions considering its cheaper cost cannot be disregard. The important thing that comes in to our mind is on how to reduce the heat that the roof of a certain building being observed. When our research will goes on may be we can found it out that using the coconut hush and aluminum foil could help our country and people by giving them the information about this kind of materials can be use as their insulator and in affordable price.
People in construction business can have a wide variety of options with regard to the materials and equipment that can be used to maximize the absorption of heat in building designs. Asses the reliability, effectiveness and efficiency of employing coconut husk as heat absorber to the building and other structures requiring cooling system.Have a model study on the standards of using the aluminum foil in structural designs.
The formulation of the study being conducted uses the experimental method of research. The researchers used to prepare this method of research to determine the ability of the material to be used as to temperature test is concerned.The experiment uses coconut husk in the form of blanket and aluminum foil (flexi foil).
For insulation, were the data should be gathered from the two model of roofing (in buildings roof): one is being applied by the experimental insulation and the other has none to provide a reference for comparison.
The coconut husks in the form of blanket and aluminum foil (flexi foil) were used as insulating materials in roofing. These materials were directly applied in the roofs, in which the coconut husk is first to attach beyond the galvanized iron sheets (G.I.) roofing, followed by the aluminum foil that will served as heat storage that passes through the foam. The experimental model need the heater, to be able to make the room heated so as the presence of heat the researcher can gather temperature data in both house model, which the one contain the insulation materials and the other has none.


Engineer’s are always upon the innovation of the advance science and unique technology, making them the infinite designer of the modern world. Considering the Philippines economic crisis calls the need of power scarcity. Furthermore, with the uncontrolled increase of oil prices that our country experienced, we have come up to formulate a new innovation of generating electricity through vacuum air. This innovation involves the principle of highway and transportation engineering, thermodynamics(converting potential energy to kinetic energy by turning the turbine, then the mechanical energy which will the produce heat and then to electrical to electricity). The Philippines and other countries are suffering from economic crisis that results to the depreciation of oil price and primary family needs, in this case, it is necessary to look for an alternative that will help to reduce family expenses particularly electric consumption. Everyday, trucks, buses and cars run a minimum speed of 100km/hr in our expressway which results air vacuum as they pass by. With this, through the principle of windmill generator, which generates electricity, we have come to think of conversion of air vacuum to electricity. With the fast turning of windmill directed into the blades of the impulse turbines, which makes the motor, spin to generate electricity. In the simplest form of windmill generator, the air turns the turbine then turns the generator to produce electricity. The available vacuum air depends on the speed of vehicles passes by, and also the pressure of the air, which will strike the blades to rotate. As in model expressway prepared, install the vehicle into the road pavements. Start the vehicle as it to passes to the windmill at the shoulder of the road located at the side of the model expressway. The vehicle will then produces vacuum air that will give enough pressure in able to rotate the dynamo or blades of the turbine. As blade rotates, this will now run the generator that will then produce electricity through heat


The study paves the way for the recognition and introduction of using indigenous material as an alternative solution in the production of low cost housing to lower construction cost and housing backlogs.
The study attempts to discover the utilization and end-user’s acceptability of SOIL BLOCKS (SB). It aims to introduce and evaluate the performance of SB as wall panel in the construction of low cost housing specifically in areas of production, utilization, construction and end-user’s perception on the acceptability of the product.
The SB technology in the Philippines in its present position in the world is still way behind in terms of skillful use of scientific and technological techniques, equipment and processes. SB’s limited exposure can be traced to factor such as the very limited producers of SB; the lack of promotion and marketing strategy among producers; the lack of awareness of the technology among mass housing developers; the non-availability of equipment; and the quality of the soil itself. In terms of its potential application, the utilization of SB over CHB reduces the cost of housing construction by 10 to 20% of the total material cost. Thus, this will increase acquisition of housing unit using SB as wall panels. For the past eight years, the Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB) has been introduced and found out to be underutilized in spite of its reduced construction cost acceptable workmanship. Due to high demands and backlogs in mass housing, the study aims to improve the current CEB to wall panel and that will pave another breakthrough in the construction and technology. In view to the above observation, research and development related to technology that will focus on the use of indigenous materials and improvement or modification of the product to suit local conditions should be done both non-government organization and the government. To upgrade the quality so that it can compete with both conventional and new technologies coming from abroad, there is a need to establish standards and norms for CEB. Considering compressive strength, CEB can be explored to significantly reduce the cost of house construction. To gain its market share and make significant contribution to the housing industry, both CEB and SB should be linked to the government’s National Shelter Program. Finally, manpower training and adopting a good approach to the design and execution oft her earth structure are hereby recommended. In view of the rising costs of construction and the need to contribute to the solution of the ever growing housing backlog problem, the study paves the way for the recognition and acceptance of using indigenous building materials for low cost housing construction. It proposes alternative solutions in the production of low coast housing to solve the current backlogs. It its entirety, the research study addresses the concern of the pore and marginalized sector of society to have access to affordable shelter.
The results of this study are expected to benefit also the following:

Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC). As the government coordinating agency in housing, it should provide insights in helping to re-evaluate existing policies and programs on the promotion and accreditations of indigenous building materials for low cost housing. Government Financial Institutions. To provide insights on the potential of funding developmental loans for projects in mass housing productions utilizing both CEB and SB. Specific areas of concern by this institution are the collateral value and economic life span of the housing units.

Housing Insurance Guarantee Corporation. The actual performance of SB will provide the corporation the capability to determine the extent of guaranty on housing units using SB and taken-out by any financial institution.
CEB/SB Producers. To determine feedback particularly on the weak point of SB when use for external wall panel in order to improve the system of production.

House Builders. The study will provide the information for devising the measures to improve the method of construction utilizing SB as well as maintaining durability of the housing units.
Researchers. The results of this study could provide new knowledge and at the same time encourage other researchers to conduct similar studies on the utilization of indigenous materials to reduce the cost of housing.

SBs are formed by compressing slightly moistened earth in a manually or mechanically operated steel press. SBs are solid rectangular shape with an average weight of 6m kilogram and an average compressive strength of 1,100 psi.
Procedures in the production
Measuring out of drying materials
Drying Mixing
Wet Mixing
Removing from mold
Wet Curing